This page last changed on Jun 01, 2009 by kbell.
LOOPS
FIRST HALF OF THE FORCE AND MOTION UNIT
December 6, 2008
BACKGROUND
Instructional Plan
The big question for the entire Force and Motion module is to understand how forces cause things to move. The first step is provided by the first three weeks that develop ways to describe and summarize motion. This lays the foundation for the subsequent introduction of force in two ways: by becoming familiar with velocity and the change of velocity (which is what a force does), and by introducing position and velocity vectors and vector decomposition (which will later be applied to force vectors). This schedule allows three subsequent weeks for dynamics where force is introduced and F=ma explored. (Need to check with teachers about how they want to handle vectors. How can we represent them, etc?)
The overall goal of the first three weeks is to give students an intuitive understanding of kinematics. In particular, students should be able to relate physical motion to position and velocity graphs in one and two dimensions. Students need to relate a description of motion with the actual motion and with graphs first in one dimension and then two. These activities make essentially no mention of force.
Instructional Design
Instructional Patterns
The computerbased materials will be based on the following pattern, a blend of "experiment" (in a way that applies to handson and simulations) plus "construct an argument." These will correspond to steps in WISE or pages within the LOOPS editor. Not every step will be required each time
1. Elicit as many ideas as possible.
2. Frame an investigation, develop procedure
3. Gather evidence through experimentation
4. Summarize the evidence and evaluate the conjecture
5. Identify other evidence related to the question.
6. Evaluate the ideas based and data from the experiment
7. Identify additional questions and further experiments
In addition, the teacher will use the "Orient, diagnose, and guide" pattern.
1. Generate alternative ideas
2. Orient with a video or model
3. Diagnose weaknesses,
4. Provide a pivotal idea, analogy, or example
5. Reconsider ideas based on evidence.
We may want to invoke other patterns, but to simplify the teachers' job, perhaps we can focus on just these two patterns.
Feedback
The following is a list of electronic feedback that the software will generate.
1. Progress data. Reports where students are in the project.
2. Basic indicators of participation: attendance, time logged in, total time, number of blank answers (none, too short, nonsense).
3. Automatically scored measures. Results from embedded assessments and homework based on multiplechoice questions. Include number right, number of tries/amount of help required. Results from numerical questions, KI tasks using Principle Maker, and graph interpretation
4. Teacher scored measures: performance measures that require teacher scoring. Short answers. Annotated graph and model snapshots.
5. Game scores. Where there are games, the final score and level achieved.
6. Class Measures (conceptual probes.) Data on conceptual understanding obtained by having the teacher ask all students to respond to a question.
7. Lexical analysis. This would be automatic analysis of student responses that could indicate their writing skill level and accuracy of response.
Technological analysis. Data on load times, failures, and other performance indicators. (While of primary interest to the project, teachers will want to know the extent to which technology has interfered with each studentto evaluate the accuracy of the modern "the dog ate my homework" excuse.
Composite Indicators: As we become familiar with individual indicators, we could create composite indicators which could include a progress monitor and inquiry index.
1. Progress. Answers "What have you completed?" This reports what step and activities students are currently working on, and which have been completed.
2. Inquiry Index. Answers "How well do you inquire?"
Actions that teachers can take
The following are the main actions that a teacher can take in response to the feedback:
Tutor the individuals who are having difficulty.
Select student specialists in a topic area and ask them to assist peers.
Assign activities to change the pace: speed it up or slow it down.
Assign optional steps.
Whole class activitieslecture, demo, discuss, underscore.
Conceptual probes. Send a question, collect responses, share what students generate, and discuss.
Assign or change homework.
Kinematics Goals and Technologies
Specific California standards for weeks 13
The following is a list of the standards addressed by the first three weeks of the F&M module.
8PC1.a. Students know position is defined in relation to some choice of a standard reference point and a set of reference directions.
8PC1.b. Students know that average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed and that the speed of an object along the path traveled can vary.
8PC1.c. Students know how to solve problems involving distance, time, and average speed.
8PC1.d. Students know the velocity of an object must be described by specifying both the direction and the speed of the object.
8PC1.e. Students know changes in velocity may be due to changes in speed, direction, or both.
8PC1.f. Students know how to interpret graphs of position versus time (and graphs of speed versus time) for motion in a single direction.
Problem Context: Will select appropriate forms of transportation, comparing forms of transportation.
Activity Progression
The idea behind the activities is to progress from the concrete to the abstract, first with position and then velocity. The sequence of descriptions of motion is:
Experience a graph of personal motion. Student use a motion detector that displays realtime graphs of their position or velocity as a function of time as they walk back and forth in front of the sensor.
Observe a graph of the motion of an object. This also uses the motion detector with the same graph output, but this time it is used to detect the motion of an objectcart, rolling can, pendulum, a sliding block.
Analyze a video to produce a graph. This uses Tracker to analyze videos to generate the same graphs that the motion detector does, but less automatically. This shows kids exactly where the graph data comes from.
Use a graph to describe a motion. Here students only have a position or velocity graph and must useit to describe the motion.
Use an equation to describe a motion. Use linear equations (x =x0 + vt) to describe motion. Emphasize that. v is the slope for position graph. (what equations are presented in 8th grade PS?)
The teacher can control the pace of the units by speeding through this progression, by dropping steps, omitting the last step, or slowing down by inserting optional activities that will be provided.
Technology Used in Kinematics
The following technologies are needed for these two weeks. Other technology will be used in the subsequent four weeks. The ones here do not require or use force.
Motion Probes. This provides compelling handson labs. We will use the welltried sequence from position to velocity with pairing of human and inanimate motions. We can use Smart Graphs for output analysis. This can have a gamelike feel, too, in which students earn a score that depends on how closely they match a target graph by moving in front of the motion detector. (3 days)
Hanging with Friends: positionvelocity graphs and motions. This models linear motion and provides practice with d = r*t. (12 days)

 Treasure hunt: vectors add. Students move vectors to explore how they sum and are decomposed. This may need some smarts to tell whether the vectors are connected tailtohead. (what do teachers do/need for this?)
Video analysis: Students use Tracker to digitize the motion of objects, converting physical motion into graphs. Some of the videos that introduced the unit can be used, but not if the observer (photographer) was moving. (2 days)
Qualitative grapher. The user can sketch a graph that can be animated, showing an elevator or walking man. (students might sketch a graph they've encountered in the video analysis?) (12 days)
 Equation grapher. This relates an equation with a graph. The user can enter the equation and see the graph, or the reverse. The equation is linear or piecewise linear.
 May be too advanced for students to grasp
SURGE. In this kinematics unit, SURGE/MW will be used to generate x and yposition graphs of 2D motion. It can go the other way, too, using user sketches to generate a motion. (23 days)
TOP LOOPS:
1. "Revisitation" LOOP: Revisiting previous day's activity
 Getting samples of student work as a way to revisit students' activity
 Can teachers bring up previous activity on the screen, or a way to reengage students' activities
 Representing an actual step/activity (in addition to representing notes)
 Template patterns (Slotta/Madeira): have teachers choose another pattern. For example, if an experimentation pattern didn't work, have teachers try out a critique pattern.
 Allow teacher to state pedagogical objective, and then allow her to craft intervention and give teacher a toolkit.
 Give teacher a way to bring activity back up on screen and allow her to connect with students' misconception. Also give teachers alternative ways to validate students' misunderstandings. Want teachers to revisit the inquiry part, not the lecture part.
2. "Exit Poll": Translating the clicker activity into WISE
 Use our existing multiple choice tools and multimodal questions. The only thing that is missing is projecting realtime student input on the board.
3. "Flag Five": Teachers can flag top 5 notes.
 There could be a diagnosis phase in the reflection part.
 Teachers see that student has certain ideas, and then what is the next instructional step?
4. "Inquiry Indicator" Loop: Making thinking visible.
 Were students' experiments valid? How many trials did they run? Way to make students' activity patterns visible, that would guide teacher interactions with the students (McElhaney.)
 Way to ensure that class discussions conducted well by giving them three patterns to discuss.
LOOPS MOTION: A THREEWEEK SCENARIO
Week One: Position Graphs for Linear Motion
The standards for the first week are
8PC1.a. Students know position is defined in relation to some choice of a standard reference point and a set of reference directions.
8PC1.f. Students know how to interpret graphs of position versus time for motion in a single direction.
Day One: Eliciting ideas and questions about motion
1. Pretest: Students take a pretest for the entire force and motion unit with KItype twolevel questions. This might be a modified FCI. Logistics. 1) all students take the test online allowing the teacher to get immediate feedback or (2) split each pair into A and B and the As take the online version and Bs take a print version.
2. Project Introduction: "What is the best way to describe the motion of your bicycle when you ride to school?"
3. Elicit ideas about motion
4. Orient with videos: Several video clips related to transportation are available on each computer; examples include a bicyclist, a motorcycle jump, a sailboat, a jet taking off and landing, a simulation of a trip to Mars, an amoeba, a parachute jump, an auto crash with a dummy, a roadrunner cartoon showing impossible motion.
5. Written description of motion: students pick one video each and write a description of the motion (diagnose weaknesses); some students are asked to share with the class (Flag Five)
6. Reconsider ideas based on evidence: after class discussion of motion based on the videos, students are allowed to review and edit their written descriptions (teacher can track the changes made).
7. Homework: What kinds of transportation are there? How do they move? What are their benefits? (Why is it best to take a train from San Francisco to San Jose, but not a car, plane, or a bicycle?)
Day Two: Personal MotionPosition Graphs
1. Why the need for graphs?
2. Motion Detector Demonstration: To describe motion, we need to quantify the motionfind out where the ball/person/bike was at each instant. As usual in science, we start with a simpler problem: describing motion in one dimension. The teacher shows a motion detector and demonstrates it by have a volunteer walk back and forth and displaying the resulting graph. Graph snapshots and annotation are also demonstrated.
3. Activity: Position graphs using the motion detector (Inquiry Indicator):
Elicit a conjecture: Students are given walking instructions (e.g., walk from 1 to 2 meters from the detector in 10 s, and then...) and asked to sketch the resulting graph.
Frame an investigation, develop procedure: Students are introduced to the motion detector, asked to lay out a track so they know where they are relative to the detector. Practice walking in front of the detector.
Gather evidence through experimentation: Walk according to the instructions. Try several times and select the best graph.
Summarize the evidence and evaluate the conjecture: Compare the best graph with the prediction.
Evaluate the ideas based and data from the experiment: Determine which graphexperiment or sketchbest matches the story.
4. Position Slalom (Inquiry Indicator): Walking. Each student group is given a position graph and is asked to match it by walking in front of the motion detector. A scoring algorithm assigns a score that indicates that overall accuracy of the produced graph. When they get a high score, a new, more difficult, graph is provided. Two versions: each student tries and can see the graph, then one walks but cannot see the graph. The graph with the best score is sent to the teacher. The Inquiry Index is constructed from number of trials and whether the score increased significantly each time.
5. Conceptual Probe: Students annotate on a graph produced by the teacher where the student is closest, farthest, fastest, slowest, stopped, moving away from and moving toward the detector. These graphs are returned anonymously and once they are all completed, they are superimposed and shown to the class (Flag Five). Before class, the teacher has been asked to predict student performance. The predicted and actual results are shown on the teacher's computer only.
6. Homework:
7. Optional Activity. GraphtoMotion Game. If the Conceptual Probe indicates student confusion, teachers can insert the following activity and delay the subsequent activities. Students are given a graph of motion. They then convert it to a list of (x, t) pairs and, looking only at the list, try to reproduce the graph. When they are done, they see the original and get a Slalom score (Thanks to Stephen).
Day Three: Motion of an Object
The motion detector is used again, but this time to generate a position graph of objects in the classroom that are moving with (mostly) constant velocity: a cart, rolling ball, etc. Students should avoid accelerated motion (e.g., inclines, sliding friction, a pendulum).
1. Revisit Human Motion Graphs: The teacher displays a graph to the class and asks them to describe where someone would be closest, farthest, fastest, slowest, stopped, moving away from and moving toward the detector (just like day two's conceptual probe, but addressing and clarifying some misconceptions from day two).
2. Activity: Position graphs of an object using a motion detector : Students are assigned different motions and asked to predict what the graph of position vs. time will look like. Then, gather data and compare. (Flag Five)
Among the motion they can analyze are: (1) a rolling ball or cart toward the detector; (2) a rolling ball or cart away from the detector; (3) two objects rolling away with different speeds; (4) one object rolling away with one speed while another approaches at a different speed; (5) a cart (spring loaded) moves away from a detector, bounces off a wall, and comes back.
Elicit a conjecture. Each student pair decides on the motion of an object based on their homework and asked to sketch the expected graph.
Frame an investigation, develop procedure. Students lay out a track for their object and think about where to locate the motion detector. Develop a procedure and practice collecting data.
Gather evidence through experimentation. Try several times to collect data and select the best graph.
Summarize the evidence and evaluate the conjecture. Compare the best graph with the prediction. Rate themselves according to a rubric that gives points for the overall shape, axes, time durations, magnitudes, etc. '
Identify other evidence related to the question. What might have influenced the motion that might account for differences between prediction and data. Friction, difficulty with the detector, location of the detector, etc.
Evaluate the ideas based and data from the experiment. Write a report using annotated snapshots of the prediction
3. Conceptual Probe. Students are given a story of a motion and asked to pick the graph that best describes it. (Flag Five)
4. Exit Poll: students are given several multiple choice questions regarding slope magnitude, slope sign, etc.
5. Homework: Give students a story (the Tortoise and the Hare, a person commuting to work by driving, walking, and taking the train etc.) and have them create a graph; label the graph with specific events in the story. Given a graph, students tell a story about it.
Day Four: Analysis of a Video
Video analysis may be important way to link a graph to actual pictures and build important associations. It also demonstrates how motion can be converted to distance measurements over time, removing some of the magic of the ultrasonic motion detector.
1. Revisit / Flag 5: Students share their stories from the homework assignment, allowing the teacher to recap the previous day's big ideas and to address any lingering misconceptions.
2. Demonstration: Teacher demonstrates how to do video analysis. Ideally, the teacher can capture some onedimensional motion on video and then show how to construct a position graph using video analysis. (10 min)
3. Teacher Introduction. "What is the motion of a person protected by an airbag in a crash?"
4. Car Crash Video: Students watch a video of the crash used in Air Bags
a. Each student group creates (predicts) an annotated positiontime graph of the dummy during the crash. These are submitted and shared anonymously (Flag Five).
b. The teacher demonstrates the video analysis software using the video of a crash in Air Bags to generate a graph the position against time.
5. Discussion: What did you learn? Does the dummy ever speed up? The teacher leads a discussion about different kinds of errors: direction, location of the crash on the graph, the horizontal line after the crash; use this discussion to diagnose weaknesses.
Day Five: Finding Speed from Position Time Graphs
1. Principle Maker. A position graph sketch is sent to all groups along with five velocity sketches. Each group is asked to pick one and provide an explanation, by selecting principles and logic from lists. (Exit Polllike activity) This gives an approximate KI scale.
2. Demonstration: The teacher generates both a position graph and a corresponding velocity graph of human motion with a volunteer from the class. How can we determine one  either position or velocity  given the other?
3. Lecture: Velocity is the slope of the position time graph's best fit line (rise/run, or _x/_t).
4. Conceptual Probe: A graph is sent out to all students, who are asked to calculate the velocity of the object and to compare that value to the constant value from the velocity graph (Flag Five).
5. Exit Poll: Students are given a series of position time graphs and students are asked to calculate the speed of the object by determining the slope of the line.
Week Two: Velocity in Linear Motion
The standards for the second week are
8PC1.b. Students know that average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed and that the speed of an object along the path traveled can vary.
8PC1.c. Students know how to solve problems involving distance, time, and average speed.
8PC1.f. Students know how to interpret graphs of graphs of speed versus time for motion in a single direction.
Day Six: Velocity from Position Time Graphs and Position from Velocity Time Graphs
1. Revisit the major concepts from the week before (perhaps as an entrance poll):
a. Magnitude of slope indicates how fast someone or something is moving
b. The sign of the slope indicates the direction of motion (positive slope = motion away and a negative slope = motion coming back).
2. Activity: Velocity Graph Match (students determine that velocity can be positive or negative  unlike the position graphs, which were all positive  and that the sign indicates the direction. (Inquiry Indicator)
3. Activity: Velocity Slalom  Each student group is given a velocity graph and is asked to match it by walking in front of the motion detector. A scoring algorithm assigns a score that indicates that overall accuracy of the produced graph. When they get a high score, a new, more difficult, graph is provided. The graph with the best score is sent to the teacher. The Inquiry Index is constructed from number of trials and whether the score increased significantly each time. (Inquiry Indicator)
4. Discussion: Speed vs. Velocity. Students experienced from position graphs that the position was always positive but the sign of the slope indicated the direction in which the person or object was moving. Using velocity graphs, the students see that velocity can be positive or negative based on the direction of motion. Even if the speed is the same away from or toward the detector, the velocity is different because of its sign (positive or negative). We define velocity as speed in a certain direction; this is the students' introduction to vectors.
5. Homework: Students are asked to sketch the velocity graph for the same motion they sketched the position graphs on day three.
Day Seven: Velocity from Position Time Graphs and Position from Velocity Time Graphs
1. Revisit/Flag Five: Discussion of homework (sketches of velocity graphs)
2. Probe. A pair of graphs (one position and one velocity) for the same motion are sent to all students who are asked to annotate where the speed was zero, positive, negative, greatest forward, and greatest backward. These are returned and discussed. (Flag Five)
3. Probe. Each group is sent a different position graph and asked to sketch the corresponding velocity graph. Also each group is given a velocity graph and asked to sketch a position graph. Use the smart graph to score. Provide levels of difficulty. (Inquiry Indicator)
4. Lecture: Whereas the slope from a position graph indicated the velocity, the area under the curve on a velocity graph indicates the displacement.
5. Activity: Finding displacement of human motion. A student volunteer walks back and forth in front of a motion detector and the corresponding graph of velocity is sent to all students. They are asked to calculate the total displacement of the student and compare their prediction to the actual displacement . (Flag Five)
6. Exit Poll
Day Eight: Hanging With Friends
Teachers will use specific activities from Hanging With Friends. These activities include Problem Visualization (activity 2.4), Calculating Velocity with Friends (activity 3.5), and Antonio's Ride (activity 4.2). While students complete these activities, teachers will receive data such as the actual inputs and the number of times it took a student or student group to correctly enter information for Antonio's Ride.
1. Merge 1.1 (Hanging Out!) and 1.4 (City Map) into one page, which will serve as an introduction to the following Hanging with Friends activities and will give relevance to the story
2. Problem Visualization (activity 2.4)
3. Activities 3.3 and 3.4 are used as scaffolding for students before completing activity 3.5.
4. Calculating Velocity with Friends (activity 3.5)
5. Antonio's Ride (activity 4.2)
6. Online KI assessment.
Day Nine: Using an Equation
1. Revisit: The teacher shares with the class a description of an object's motion. Then, the teacher displays the corresponding graphs of position and velocity with respect to time (e.g. Antonio's Ride).
2. Lecture: This day, students are introduced to the most abstract representation of motionan equation of distance against time. This will be first a linear equation and then a series of piecewise linear equations.
Students have now generated, sketched, and analyzed graphs of position vs. time and velocity vs. time. They have calculated slopes from position graphs and areas from velocity graphs. Lead students through a discussion and analysis session to develop the equation that v = _x/_t or x = xi + v_t.
3. Problem Solving: Students use the equation to solve mathematical problems related to uniform motion. (Flag Five)
4. Exit Poll
Day Ten: Summary
Week Three. Vectors and 2D Motion
The standards for the third week are:
8PC1.d. Students know the velocity of an object must be described by specifying both the direction and the speed of the object.
8PC1.e. Students know changes in velocity may be due to changes in speed, direction, or both.
Day 11: Treasure Hunt. Vectors Add
Day 12: Video Analysis of 2D Motion
Describe velocity vectors as the change in the position vector?
Day 13: SURGE. Position Games
SURGE is used to generate 2D motion that is graphed as two separate graphs, one of the xdirection and one of the ydirection.
Day 14:
Day 15:
Kinematics Quiz.
MEMORABLE IMAGES AND ACTIONS
Video as Data
Students will evermore imagine how any video of motion can be seen framebyframe and position data extracted to generate a graph.
Graphs
Students will learn the language of graphsthe significance of various features. To support this, the same graph tool will be used in all the activitiesthe motion detector, the video analysis tool, Hanging with Friends, and the equation grapher.
Vectors
Students will think of position and velocity vectors as arrows that can be moved around to add or decompose other vectors.
